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Unix Error Handling Shell Script

and Signals and Traps (Oh, My!) - Part 2 by William Shotts, Jr. Errors are not the only way that a script can terminate unexpectedly. You also have to be concerned with signals. Consider the following program: #!/bin/bash echo "this script will endlessly loop until you stop it" while true; shell script exit code do : # Do nothing done After you launch this script it will appear to hang. bash if exit code Actually, like most programs that appear to hang, it is really stuck inside a loop. In this case, it is waiting for the true bash script exit on error command to return a non-zero exit status, which it never does. Once started, the script will continue until bash receives a signal that will stop it. You can send such a signal by typing ctrl-c which is the signal called SIGINT shell script return value (short for SIGnal INTerrupt). Cleaning up after yourself OK, so a signal can come along and make your script terminate. Why does it matter? Well, in many cases it doesn't matter and you can ignore signals, but in some cases it will matter. Let's take a look at another script: #!/bin/bash # Program to print a text file with headers and footers TEMP_FILE=/tmp/printfile.txt pr $1 > $TEMP_FILE echo -n "Print file? [y/n]: " read if [ "$REPLY" = "y" ]; then lpr

Linux Kernel Error Codes

$TEMP_FILE fi This script processes a text file specified on the command line with the pr command and stores the result in a temporary file. Next, it asks the user if they want to print the file. If the user types "y", then the temporary file is passed to the lpr program for printing (you may substitute less for lpr if you don't actually have a printer attached to your system.) Now, I admit this script has a lot of design problems. While it needs a file name passed on the command line, it doesn't check that it got one, and it doesn't check that the file actually exists. But the problem I want to focus on here is the fact that when the script terminates, it leaves behind the temporary file. Good practice would dictate that we delete the temporary file $TEMP_FILE when the script terminates. This is easily accomplished by adding the following to the end of the script: rm $TEMP_FILE This would seem to solve the problem, but what happens if the user types ctrl-c when the "Print file? [y/n]:" prompt appears? The script will terminate at the read command and the rm command is never executed. Clearly, we need a way to respond to signals such as SIGINT when the ctrl-c key is typed. Fortunately, bash provides a method to perform commands if and when signals are received. trap The trap command allows you to execute a command whe

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Bash If Exit Code Not 0

about Stack Overflow the company Business Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads bash trap with us Unix & Linux Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered Ask Question _ Unix & Linux Stack Exchange is a question exit bash shell and answer site for users of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un*x-like operating systems. Join them; it only takes a minute: Sign up Here's how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The http://linuxcommand.org/wss0160.php best answers are voted up and rise to the top How to catch an error in a linux bash script? up vote 5 down vote favorite 1 I made the following script: # !/bin/bash # OUTPUT-COLORING red='\e[0;31m' green='\e[0;32m' NC='\e[0m' # No Color # FUNCTIONS # directoryExists - Does the directory exist? function directoryExists { cd $1 if [ $? = 0 ] then echo -e "${green}$1${NC}" else echo -e "${red}$1${NC}" fi http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/97101/how-to-catch-an-error-in-a-linux-bash-script } # EXE directoryExists "~/foobar" directoryExists "/www/html/drupal" The script works, but beside my echoes, there is also the output when cd $1 fails on execution. testscripts//test_labo3: line 11: cd: ~/foobar: No such file or directory Is it possible to catch this? bash shell shell-script error-handling share|improve this question edited Oct 22 '13 at 22:58 Gilles 374k706831129 asked Oct 22 '13 at 10:29 Thomas De Wilde 28114 Just an FYI, you can also do this a lot simpler; test -d /path/to/directory ( or [[ -d /path/to/directory ]] in bash ) will tell you whether a given target is a directory or not, and it will do it quietly. –Patrick Oct 22 '13 at 12:36 @Patrick, that just tests if it's a directory, not if you can cd into it. –Stéphane Chazelas Oct 22 '13 at 12:54 @StephaneChazelas yes. The function name is directoryExists. –Patrick Oct 22 '13 at 13:57 add a comment| 5 Answers 5 active oldest votes up vote 4 down vote accepted Your script changes directories as it runs, which means it won't work with a series of relative pathnames. You then commented later that you only wanted to check for directory existence, not the ability to use cd, so answers don't need to

here for a quick overview of the site Help Center Detailed answers to any questions you might have Meta Discuss the workings and policies of this site About Us Learn more http://stackoverflow.com/questions/64786/error-handling-in-bash about Stack Overflow the company Business Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us Stack Overflow Questions Jobs Documentation Tags Users Badges Ask Question x Dismiss Join the Stack Overflow Community Stack Overflow https://www.dssw.co.uk/blog/2012-10-08-how-to-add-error-checking-to-your-shell-scripts/ is a community of 6.3 million programmers, just like you, helping each other. Join them; it only takes a minute: Sign up Error handling in BASH up vote 145 down vote favorite 111 What shell script is your favorite method to handle errors in BASH? The best example of handling errors in BASH I have found on the web was written by William Shotts, Jr at http://www.linuxcommand.org. William Shotts, Jr suggests using the following function for error handling in BASH: #!/bin/bash # A slicker error handling routine # I put a variable in my scripts named PROGNAME which # holds the name of the program bash if exit being run. You can get this # value from the first item on the command line ($0). # Reference: This was copied from PROGNAME=$(basename $0) function error_exit { # ---------------------------------------------------------------- # Function for exit due to fatal program error # Accepts 1 argument: # string containing descriptive error message # ---------------------------------------------------------------- echo "${PROGNAME}: ${1:-"Unknown Error"}" 1>&2 exit 1 } # Example call of the error_exit function. Note the inclusion # of the LINENO environment variable. It contains the current # line number. echo "Example of error with line number and message" error_exit "$LINENO: An error has occurred." Do you have a better error handling routine that you use in BASH scripts? bash error-handling error-logging share|improve this question asked Sep 15 '08 at 17:09 community wiki Noob add a comment| 14 Answers 14 active oldest votes up vote 94 down vote Use a trap! tempfiles=( ) cleanup() { rm -f "${tempfiles[@]}" } trap cleanup 0 error() { local parent_lineno="$1" local message="$2" local code="${3:-1}" if [[ -n "$message" ]] ; then echo "Error on or near line ${parent_lineno}: ${message}; exiting with status ${code}" else echo "Error on or near line ${parent_lineno}; exiting with status ${code}" fi exit "${code}" } trap 'error ${LINENO}' ERR ...then, whenever you create

article shows how to add error checking to highlight problems you might otherwise miss. Access the shell on Mac via the Terminal.app Unlike more recently designed languages, shell script does not have an easy answer for error handling. There are no common exception handling routines or ways of wrapping up large blocks of script and asking for errors to fall through to a provided subroutine. Instead shell script asks you, the author, to check individual program exit codes and branch as needed in case of an error. In practice, this means your once short script is going to get a little longer and a little more involved. Unix Exit Status Each program you run through a shell script returns an exit status. This numeric status value tells the calling script if the program completed successfully or if an error was encountered. The exit status is not visible on the command line. This makes it difficult to tell if something went wrong just by looking at the textual output of a shell script. It is possible - even common - for scripts to print nothing and yet encounter multiple errors. Let's consider this simple script: #!/bin/sh cp /Volumes/Documents/criticalfile.txt /Volumes/BackUp/. This script does one thing; it copies a single file from one volume to another using the cp program. Thankfully the cp program is chatty and will print a message if an error is encountered. That is great for us reviewing the output visually, but for the shell running our script the error will go completely unnoticed. This is a problem if our script goes on to do more work, or if we want the script to robustly deal with errors. Let's add error checking to this simple script. #!/bin/sh cp /Volumes/Documents/criticalfile.txt /Volumes

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